Physical Geography

It is the study of characteristic features of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and environment.

Troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest atmospheric layer. All human activity takes place here. Everyday weather phenomena, such as clouds and storms, mainly happen in the troposphere. Here temperature decreases with increasing elevation. The troposphere is thickest in the equatorial and tropical regions, where it stretches from sea level to about 16 km. It thins toward the …

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Theory of Isostasy

Different relief features of varying magnitudes e.g. mountains, plateaus plains, lakes, seas, and oceans, faults, and rift valleys, etc. standing on the earth’s surface are probably balanced by certain definite principle, otherwise, this would have not been maintained in their present form. Whenever this balance is disturbed, there start violent earth movement and tectonic events. …

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Plate Tectonics

The rigid lithospheric slabs are called plates. The study of the whole mechanism of evolution, nature and motions of plates, deformation within plates and interactions of plate margins with each other is collectively called as plate tectonics. Plate tectonic theory, a significant scientific advancement of the decade 1960’s is based on two major scientific concepts e.g. (1) the continental …

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Landslide

A large mass of bedrock or regolith sliding downhill is known as a landslide. Large, disastrous landslides are possible wherever mountain slopes are steep. Landslides can also result when the base of a slope is made too steep by excavation or river erosion. Landslides range from rockslides of jumbled bedrock fragments to bedrock slumps in which most …

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Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary rocks are made from layers, or strata, of mineral particles found in other rocks that have been weathered and from newly formed organic matter. Most inorganic minerals in sedimentary rocks are from igneous rocks. When rock minerals are weathered, their chemical composition is changed, weakening the solid rock. The rock breaks up into particles of …

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What is Geography?

In very simple words “Geography is the description of the earth”. Eratosthenes, a 3rd century BC Greek scholar coined the term geography (from “geo” meaning “the earth” and “graphe” meaning “the description”). Thus, the literal meaning of geography is to describe the earth. Geography is concerned with the study of nature and human interaction. The geographical …

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Urban Heat Island

An urban heat island is an urban area or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities. The temperature difference is usually larger at night than during the day, and is most apparent when winds are weak. Air temperatures in the central region of a city are typically several degrees warmer than those of the surrounding …

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Carbon Pricing

Carbon pricing is an instrument that captures the external costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions – the costs of emissions that the public pays for, such as damage to crops, health care costs from heat waves and droughts, and loss of property from flooding and sea level rise – and ties them to their sources through a …

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Seismic Noise

Scientists at the British Geological Survey (BGS) have reported a change in the Earth’s seismic noise and vibrations amid the coronavirus lockdown. These findings have come two weeks after seismologists at the Royal Observatory in Belgium observed a 30-50% fall in levels of seismic noise since schools and businesses were closed in mid-March. What is …

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Keystone Species

A keystone species is an organism that helps define an entire ecosystem. Without its keystone species, the ecosystem would be dramatically different or cease to exist altogether. if these species will disappear from the ecosystem, no other species would be able to fill its ecological niche. The ecosystem would be forced to radically change, allowing …

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