The developed countries of the world are highly industrialized and urbanized. These countries include West European countries (UK, France, Germany, Netherlands, Iceland, Ireland, Belgium, etc.) European Russia, USA, Canada, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand.
In these countries per capita income is very high in comparison to developing countries and most of their people are dependent on secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy.
Most of the developed countries have low birth rate and low death rate and consequently, they have stationary or slowly growing populations.
Aging Population or High Life Expectancy:
The developed countries are in the fourth stage of demographic transition where both the birth rate and death rate are low and life expectancy is high (above 75 years).
Due to the low birth rate, the proportion of the younger population is relatively low and because of the low death rate, the life expectancy is high. Thus, the proportion of older people in their population is ever increasing.
In developed European countries like United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, etc. More than 16 percent population is over 65 years of age. Thus, a large Army of retired people remains dependent on the active and working population.
At present aging has become a serious problem of many developed countries.
Small Labor Force:
Many developing countries are facing a shortage of labor force. Because of the low birth rate, the labor force expands slowly while employment opportunities in industrial and other sectors continue to multiply.
Thus, despite high mechanization in industries, many developing countries are facing a shortage of workforce.
In these countries, there is a serious shortage of unskilled workers because the workforce of developed countries is generally well-educated and skilled.
This is the reason that the wages of unskilled workers are comparatively very high.
More than 75 percent population of most of the developed countries resides in urban places. With increasing size of towns and cities, the pressure of population on housing, transport, water supplies, sewage and refuse disposal continuously grows and creates many serious problems.
The high concentration of population in cities mainly due to rural to urban migration has created several consequences such as housing shortage, growth of slums, overcrowding and congestion, lowering of civic standards, environmental pollution (air, water, noise, etc.). All these have their greatest impact on the deteriorating cities environment, particularly in metropolitan cities.
Urban sprawl and expansion of slums in many developed countries are the major issues which are creating numerous social and environmental problems.
Negligence of Rural Population:
Various socio-economic amenities like centers of Higher Education ( universities, colleges), banks and other financial institutions, hospitals, places of recreation, etc. are concentrated in big towns and cities. This is the reason that rural youths migrate from their villages to cities where they start their carrier.
Thus, Mainly old and retired persons remain in villages. In this way, agriculture in rural areas suffers adversely due to non-availability of the workforce.
Consequently, ruler areas get depopulated and the living standards of the villages suffer a decline.